|City Profile||Sound Practices||DRM Library|
|Sound Practices||No information|
|Local Actors||No information|
|DRM Projects||No information|
|External Resources||No information|
Demographic, economic, social and cultural characteristics
Jakarta is the capital of the Republic of Indonesia and is the largest city in the country, with a population of over 15 million.1 Jakarta is an equatorial metropolis located in the southern hemisphere on the island of Java. The total area of the Jakarta metropolitan region is about 7,700 square kilometers, while the city has an area of approximately 660 square kilometers.
Jakarta has a special status in Indonesia and has its own provincial government, headed by the Governor. The city is divided into five administrative units, each with a local government headed by the mayor.3 The main responsibilities related to planning are vested with the provincial government, as is disaster management.
Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but rather a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It is administered much like any other Indonesian province. For example: Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta, as a province, is divided into five cities (kota), formerly municipalities, each headed by a mayor, and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to pick a governor; the election was won by Fauzi Bowo. The city's governors have previously been appointed by local parliament. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas
List of cities of Jakarta:
Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat: Pop. 889,448) is the most densely populated district and home to most of the city's skyscrapers. The district is the central government office, Bank Indonesia, the big mosque of Istiqlal, the big shopping center of Grand Indonesia and numerous museums.
- East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur: Pop. 2,391,166)
- North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara: Pop. 1,445,623 )
- South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan: Pop. 2,001,353 )
- (West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat: Pop. 2,093,013)
The only regency of Jakarta is:
Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu: Pop. 18,644), formerly a subdistrict of North Jakarta.
Like many big cities in developing countries, Jakarta suffers from major urbanization challenges. The population has risen sharply from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents. The population of greater Jakarta is estimated at 23 million, making it the second largest urban area in the world.
The rapid population growth has outgrown the government's ability to provide basic needs for its residents. As the third biggest economy in Indonesia,Jakarta has attracted a large number of visitors. The population during weekdays is almost double that of weekends, due to the influx of residents residing in other areas of Jabodetabek. Because of government's inability to provide adequate transportation for its large population, Jakarta also suffers from severe traffic jams that occur almost every day. Air pollution and waste management are also severe problems. By 2025 the population of Jakarta may reach 24.9 million, not counting millions more in surrounding areas.
Surveys show that "less than a quarter of the population is fully served by improved water sources. The rest rely on a variety of sources, including rivers, lakes and private water vendors. Some 7.2 million people are [without clean water]."
During the wet season, Jakarta suffers from flooding due to clogged sewage pipes and waterways, deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok, and the fact that 40% of it is below sea level. Major floods occurred in 1996 when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded  and 2007. Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 85 people were killed  and about 350,000 people forced from their homes.. Approximately 70% of Jakarta's total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of city.
The informal sector
In September 2007, a new law was brought into effect which attempted to regulate aspects of public order. It forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and managing traffic at busy intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and it tends to ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital's inhabitants.
Jakarta has moderate risk of earthquakes due to the distance from the most active interplate boundaries. The city has a much higher risk of flood disasters because more than 40 percent of the city is situated below sea level. Another source of flood hazard is due to the 13 rivers that pass through the province, out of which three rivers are inter-provincial and are controlled by the central government. Different low-lying parts of the city experience flooding on an annual basis resulting in disruption of local economic and social activities. The flooding is due to the accumulation of rainwater as well as to incursion of seawater, since the seawall protecting the low-lying areas has been breached at some locations.
Jakarta is experiencing very rapid growth, and rapid development is taking place on the alluvial coastal plains. Several parts of the coastal plains are experiencing subsidence of around two to three centimeters every year.
Indonesia is highly vulnerable to different natural disasters. The country is located along major subduction zones and frequently experiences devastating earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The country also experiences several hydro-meteorological disasters at regular intervals. Due to the concentration of population in Jakarta, as well as its political and economic significance, disasters in Jakarta have very high impact on the affected people, as well as the country as a whole. Following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the disaster management system in the country was revised, and disaster prevention has been accorded high priority. The revised Disaster Management Law emphasizes the integration of disaster management planning with development policies to ensure that the resilience of the country is improved.
National disaster management structure and relevant legislation
The revised Disaster Management Law was enacted in 2007 (Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24 of the Year 2007). The revised law covers natural as well as non-natural or human factors that result in human casualties, environmental damage, loss of property, and psychological impact.
The country’s objectives of disaster management, as per the revised law, comprise the following:
- Provide protection to the public from potential disaster.
- Conform with the current regulations having the force of law.
- Guarantee organization of planned, integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive disaster management.
- Show respect to the local culture.
- Set up participation and partnership of the public as well as the private parties.
- Encourage the spirit of mutual assistance, solidarity,
- Create peace in community life, nationhood, and statehood.
The Disaster Management Law has prescribed the responsibilities of the national, regional, and local governments.
The national government responsibilities include:
- Prescribing disaster management policies in conformity
with the national development policies.
- Designing development plans that incorporate the elements of disaster management policies.
- Deciding the status and level of a disaster, either national or local.
- Formulating policies on the use of technology, which may pose potential threats or hazards.
- Formulating policies on the prevention of depletion
of natural resources for recovery. and
- Controlling national-scale mobilization and distribution
of cash and materials.
The provincial or regional government that implements the revised law has the following responsibilities:
- Guaranteeing exercise of the rights of the disaster-affected and internally displaced persons in accordance
with the minimum standards of service.
- Protecting the public from disaster impacts.
- Mitigating disaster risks and incorporating such risk mitigation in development programs.
- Earmarking sufficient funding for disaster management
in the regional revenue and expenditure.
Regional governments are expected to take the lead in ensuring that a suitable response system for different disasters is created. The regional governments are also responsible for ensuring that all regional plans incorporate risk mitigation in the development plan. Since climate change is leading to environmental degradation, the revised Disaster Management Law also enables regional governments to respond to and plan various mitigation and adaptation strategies to climate change.
The Disaster Management Law recognizes that disaster management constitutes one of the elements of national development, taking the form of disaster management activities before, during, and after a disaster occurrence. In the past there was no special law concerning disaster management by which to adjudicate. The revised law provides a legal basis for the operation of disaster management and regulates activities in stages of disasters: (a) pre-disaster period, (b) during disaster, and (c) post-disaster period so that they can be carried out in a planned and coordinated manner. Implementation of the Disaster Management Law requires systemic changes in various arms of the government, and is gradually being implemented.
National land use management system and relevant legislation
The Government of Indonesia has prepared a National Action Plan for Disaster Reduction 2006–20094 since the National Middle-term Development Plan does not explicitly address the issue of disaster risk management. The Action Plan incorporates elements of disaster risk management in the area of social welfare, natural resources, and the environment. The disaster risk management activities are allocated through the following annual workplan of the Government:
- Enhancing natural disaster mitigation and climate
- Spatial planning and natural resource protection
zoning, including disaster-prone areas in coastal and sea areas.
- Developing natural disaster management system
and early warning system.
An important element of the Plan is to strengthen the preparedness of institutions and the community in preventing and mitigating the risks of future natural disasters. The initiatives strive for sustainability and stakeholder participation. Strong commitment to selected priority actions characterizes these efforts. These priorities serve the purpose of laying a strong foundation for the implementation of an integrated sustainable disaster risk reduction program that is in line with similar efforts at the international level.
The National Action Plan for Disaster Reduction 2006– 2009 mandates that five key priority areas for disaster risk reduction should be addressed:
- Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national
and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.
- Identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks and enhance
- Use knowledge, innovation, and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.
- Reduce underlying risk factors.
- Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.
The Government of Indonesia is required to set up a National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) as a nondepartmental body, which is equal to a ministry. The NDMA will consist of (a) a steering committee whose members include government officials and members from the professional community, and (b) an executive body whose members consist of professionals and experts. The NDMA has not yet been constituted, and the executive body, after its constitution, is expected to provide leadership to and facilitate implementation of the National Action Plan for Disaster Reduction. The details of the various activities mandated through the National Action Plan for Disaster Reduction 2006–2009 are given below. These are under implementation by the government of Indonesia and are not fully functional.
National Institution and Legal Framework
- Support the creation and strengthening of national
integrated disaster risk reduction mechanisms.
- Integrate risk reduction into development policies
and planning, including poverty reduction strategies.
- Adopt or modify, where necessary, legislation to
support disaster risk reduction, including regulations and mechanisms that encourage compliance and that promote incentives for undertaking risk reduction and mitigation activities.
- Recognize the importance and specificity of local
risk patterns and trends, decentralizing responsibilities and resources for disaster risk reduction to relevant subnational or local authorities.
- Assess existing human resource capacities for disaster risk reduction and develop capacity-building plans and programs for meeting ongoing and future requirements.
- Allocate resources for development and implementation
of disaster risk management policies, programs, laws, and regulations on disaster risk reduction.
- Demonstrate the strong political determination required to promote and integrate disaster risk reduction into development programs.
- Community Participation: Systematically involve communities in disaster risk reduction, including in the process of decisionmaking for issues mapping, planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. This would occur through the creation of networks.
Significance of the city to the nation
Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It also has a greater population than any other city in Southeast Asia. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972). Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661.52 square kilometres (255.41 sq mi) and a population of 8,489,910. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political center. Jakarta is the twelfth-largest city in the world; the metropolitan area, called Jabodetabek, is the sixth-largest in the world.
First established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it grew greatly as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Renamed Jakarta in 1942 during Japan's occupation of the Java, it was made the capital city of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II.
Major landmarks in Jakarta include Indonesia Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia, and the National Monument (Tugu Monas). The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
Geographical setting of the City
Jakarta is located on the northwestern coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is constituted on a plain land, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. There are about thirteen rivers flowing through Jakarta, mostly flowing from the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. The city border is the province of West Java on its east side and the province of Banten on its west side.
The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.
Jakarta has a hot and humid equatorial/tropical climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Located in the western-part of Indonesia, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 350 millimetres (14 in), and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of 60 millimetres (2.4 in). The city is humid throughout the year with daily temperature range of 25° to 38°C (77°-100°F).
Internal division of the City
|Please help improve this section by expanding it. Info might be found on the talk page|
Land Use Management
Land-Use Planning and Other Technical Regulations
- Incorporate disaster risk assessments into the urban
planning and management of disaster-prone human settlements.
- Mainstream disaster risks into planning procedures
for key infrastructure projects, including design criteria, approval, and implementation.
- Develop guidelines and monitoring tools for the reduction of disaster risk in the context of land-use policy and planning.
- Incorporate disaster risk assessment into urban development planning.
- Encourage the revision of existing building codes or the development of new building codes, standards,
rehabilitation, and reconstruction practices.
Responsible agents and their relationship
Effectiveness of current arrangements
City policies on vulnerability alleviation
Disaster Risk Management Arrangements
Identify, Assess, and Monitor Disaster Risks and Enhance Early Warning
Risk Assessment at National and Local Scale
- Develop, update, and widely disseminate risk maps and related information to decisionmakers and the general public.
- Develop systems of indicators of disaster risk and vulnerability at the national and subnational scales to enable decisionmakers to assess the impact
- Record, analyze, summarize, and disseminate statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts,
- Develop early warning systems that are people centered, in particular, systems whose warnings are timely and understandable to those at risk.
- Establish and periodically review and maintain information
systems as part of early warning systems.
- Establish institutional capacities to ensure that early
warning systems are well integrated into governmental policy and decisionmaking processes.
- Strengthen coordination and cooperation among all relevant sectors and actors in the early warning
chain in order to achieve fully effective early warning systems.
- Create and strengthen effective early warning systems
in smaller islands.
- Support the development and sustainability of the infrastructure and scientific, technological, technical,
and institutional capacities needed to research, observe, analyze, map, and forecast natural and related hazards, vulnerabilities, and disaster impacts.
- Support the development and improvement of relevant
databases and the promotion of full and open exchange and dissemination of data for assessment, monitoring, and early warning purposes.
- Support the improvement of scientific and technical methods and capacities for risk assessment, monitoring,
and early warning, through research, partnerships, training, and technical capacity building.
- Establish and strengthen the capacity to record, analyze, summarize, disseminate, and exchange statistical information and data.
- Compile and standardize statistical information and data on regional disaster risks, impacts, and losses.
- Cooperate regionally and internationally to assess and monitor regional and trans-boundary hazards.
- Research, analyze, and report long-term changes and emerging issues that might increase vulnerabilities and risks or the capacity of authorities and communities to respond to disasters.
Use Knowledge, Innovation, and Education to Build a Culture of Safety and Resilience
Information Management and Information Exchange
- Provide easily understandable information on
disaster risks and protection options, especially to citizens in high-risk areas.
- Strengthen networks among disaster experts, managers, and planners across sectors and between
regions, and create or strengthen procedures for using available expertise in developing local risk reduction plans.
- Promote and improve dialogue and cooperation among scientific communities and practitioners working on disaster risk reduction.
- Strengthen the use and implementation of updated
information, and technology for disaster risk reduction purposes.
- In the medium term, develop directories, inventories,
and information exchange systems at the local, national, regional, and international levels.
- Institutions dealing with urban development should provide information to the public on disaster
reduction options prior to construction, land purchases, or land sales.
- Update and widely disseminate international
standard terminology related to disaster risk reduction.
Education, Public Awareness, and Training
- Promote the inclusion of disaster risk reduction knowledge in relevant sections of school curricula.
- Promote the implementation of local risk assessment
and disaster preparedness programs in schools and institutions of higher education.
- Promote the implementation of programs and activities in schools for learning how to minimize the effects of hazards.
- Develop training and learning programs in disaster
risk reduction targeted at specific sectors (development planners, emergency managers, local government officials, etc.).
- Promote community-based training initiatives toenhance local capacities to mitigate and cope with disasters.
- Ensure equal access to appropriate training and educational opportunities for vulnerable constituencies.
- Promote the engagement of the media to stimulate a culture of disaster resilience and strong community
- Develop improved methods for predictive multi-risk assessments and socioeconomic cost–benefit analysis of risk reduction actions.
- Strengthen the technical and scientific capacity
to develop and apply methodologies, studies, and models to assess vulnerabilities to and the impact of geological, weather, water, and climate- related hazards.
Reduce Underlying Risk Factors
Natural Resources and Environmental Management
- Encourage the sustainable use and management of ecosystems, including through better land-use planning and development activities to reduce risk and vulnerabilities.
- Implement integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches that incorporate disaster risk reduction.
- Promote the integration of risk reduction associated with existing climate variability and future climate change.
Social and Economic Development
- Integrate disaster risk reduction planning into the health sector to safeguard hospitals from disaster impacts.
- Protect and strengthen critical public facilities (schools, hospitals, power plants, etc.) to safeguard against disaster impacts.
- Strengthen the implementation of social safety net mechanisms.
- Incorporate disaster risk reduction into post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes.
- Minimize disaster risks and vulnerabilities caused by the movement of people.
- Promote diversified income options for populations in high-risk areas to reduce their vulnerability to hazards.
- Promote the development of financial risk-sharing mechanisms such as disaster insurance.
- Promote the establishment of public–private partnerships to better engage the private sector in disaster risk reduction activities.
- Develop and promote alternative and innovative financial instruments for addressing disaster risk.
Disaster Risk Management Vision
Indonesia is the world’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases, mainly due to land-use change and deforestation. 6 Under the Kyoto Protocol, Indonesia is not required to make any firm commitments for reduction of greenhouse gases.7 Most programs and projects that focus on climate change mitigation or adaptation have their origin in other considerations such as flooding, traffic congestion, and pollution.
Bus Rapid Transportation System
To reduce Jakarta’s intense traffic congestion, the Indonesian Government started TransJakarta, a bus rapid transportation (BRT) system, in January 2004. The provision of dedicated bus lanes has enabled the service to be operated at intervals of only two to three minutes during rush hour. Most of the buses using the dedicated corridors are low-emission vehicles, running mainly running on compressed natural gas. (Some run on diesel, but all comply with the Euro-II emissions standards.)TransJakarta was begun in order to encourage people to use public transport rather than their own vehicles. The system was based on a similar community climate change program in Bogota, Colombia, South America. The implementation of the rapid bus transportation system in Jakarta has led to substantial reductions in Indonesia’s overall GHG emissions.8 In 2008, led to a reduction in carbon dioxide of 32,310 tons and in nitrous oxide by 386 tons.
TransJakarta served 15 million passengers in its first year and is now one of the largest BRT networks in the world. Yet the system has not delivered on its potential, as it has less ridership than systems one-fourth its size.10 In order to improve its operations, TransJakarta is now focusing on public awareness and marketing; expansion and integration with other transport modes, such as rail; and land use planning.
Three-in-One Traffic System
In order to reduce traffic jams in Jakarta by discouraging the use of vehicles with very few passengers, the Government has operated the three-in-one traffic system on some arterial roads of Jakarta since 2003. As per this road-use system, private cars in restricted zones must carry at least three passengers. The rule has had some positive impact on the reduction of traffic congestion during rush hours and the consequent benefit in terms of reduction in carbon emissions. Strict implementation of this system has also led to positive behavioral change among commuters, who now tend to consider timing in their commuting choices.
This “City Profile” is part of Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters, published by the World Bank. The analysis presented here is based on data available at the time of writing. For the latest information related to the Primer and associated materials, including the City Profiles, please visit www.worldbank.org/eap/climatecities. Suggestions for updating these profiles may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 1 www.citypopulation.de.
- 2 www.geographic-guide.com/maps/indonesia-map.jpg.
- 3 www.villasinbali.com/maps/jakarta.html.
- 4 Government of Indonesia, National Action Plan for Disaster
Reduction, 2006–2009, published by the United Nations Development Program, 2006.
- 5 Government of Indonesia, Disaster Management Law (Law Number 24 of the Year 2007), 2007.
- 6 World Bank, “PEACE. 2007. Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies.” Washington, DC. Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Environment/ClimateChange_
- 7 Kyoto Protocol. See http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/ items/2830.php.
- 8 W. Hook and J. Ernst. “Bus Rapid Transit in Jakarta, Indonesia: Successes and ‘Lessons Learned’.” Presentation.
- 9 Ratna Yunita, “Busway for Jakarta: A Pressing Need.” AsiaViews, October-November 2008, p. 14.
- 10 Yunita, “Busway for Jakarta,” p. 15.
- 11 “Experts say three-in-one should stay on the roads.” Jakarta Post, March 4, 2000. Available at http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2000/03/04/experts-say-threeinone-should-stay-roads.html.